Spousal association for diabetes not adjusted for BMI. ES: effect size; CI: confidence interval; Hippisley-Cox (UK) reported ORs for diabetes adjusted for age; Jurj (China) adjusted for women’s age, education, occupation and family income; Stimpson (US) adjusted for age, education and nativity of husband; Hemminki (Sweden) reported rate ratios standardized to expected number of cases for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status; Khan (UK) reported BMI-adjusted estimates only and was therefore not pooled in this analysis. When the sexes were analyzed separately, we arbitrarily chose to display the effect estimates with diabetes in the husband as the exposure and diabetes in the wife as the outcome. In general, the effect sizes were similar whether women or men were the exposure. BMI, body mass index; OR, odds ratio.