Spousal association for diabetes adjusted for BMI. ES, effect size; CI, confidence interval; In addition to adjusting for BMI, Hippisley-Cox (UK) reported odds ratios for diabetes adjusted for women and men’s age, smoking status, general practice clustering; Jurj (China) adjusted for women’s age, education, occupation and family income; Khan (UK) adjusted for age; Stimpson (US) adjusted for age, education, nativity, blood pressure, smoking status and alcohol intake of the husband. Hemminki (Sweden) did not report BMI-adjusted effect estimates and was, therefore, not pooled in this analysis. When the sexes were analyzed separately, we arbitrarily chose to display the effect measures with diabetes in the husband as the exposure and diabetes in the wife as the outcome. In general, the effect sizes were similar whether women or men were the exposure (Table 1). BMI, body mass index.