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Table 1 Risk of UTI from age 86 years onwards depending on socio-demographic, functional and medical baseline characteristics (n = 479)

From: Predictive factors of urinary tract infections among the oldest old in the general population. a population-based prospective follow-up study

  Index group N (%) Incidence in index group,
per 100 py (95% CI)
Incidence in reference group*,
per 100 py (95% CI)
HR (95%CI) P-value
Socio-demographic factors      
Female 322 (67.2) 12.8 (10.4, 15.2) 7.8 (5.1,10.6) 1.7 (1.1, 2.5) 0.012
Long-term care facility 107 (22.3) 23.5 (16.6, 25.6) 9.1 (7.3, 10.9) 2.4 (1.7, 3.4) < 0.001
Low income 238 (49.7) 11.7 (9.1, 14.4) 10.5 (7.9, 13.1) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 0.547
Primary school only 296 (61.8) 12.8 (10.2, 15.3) 8.9 (6.1, 11.3) 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.044
Smoking (current) 70 (14.6) 12.8 (7.3, 18.3) 11.0 (9.0, 12.9) 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 0.618
Body Mass index ≥27 212 (47.2) 11.1 (8.4, 13.9) 9.9 (7.5, 12.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 0.535
Functioning      
Severe cognitive impairment (MMSE < 19) 90 (19.0) 27.0 (18.6, 35.3) 9.0 (7.2, 10.8) 2.7 (1.9, 3.9) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms (GDS-15 > 4) 58 (14.8) 8.8 (4.0, 13.5) 9.1 (7.2, 10.9) 1.0 (0.5, 1.7) 0.897
Disability in daily living † 283 (59.2) 16.2 (13.0, 19.4) 6.3 (4.3, 8.3) 2.4 (1.6, 3.5) < 0.001
Co-morbidities      
Diabetes mellitus 76 (15.9) 10.6 (5.8, 15.4) 10.4 (8.4, 12.3) 1.0 (0.6, 1.6) 0.963
Stroke 60 (12.6) 20.8 (12.5, 29.1) 10.2 (8.3, 12.0) 1.9 (1.2, 3.0) 0.004
Cancer 97 (20.6) 10.0 (6.0, 14.0) 11.3 (9.2, 13.4) 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 0.589
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (IPSS score ≥8) 53 (38.1) 8.4 (3.6, 13.2) 6.3 (3.0, 9.6) 1.4 (0.7, 3.1) 0.376
UTI between the ages of 85 and 86 years 72 (15.0) 37.7 (26.5, 48.8) 8.5 (6.8, 10.2 4.1 (2.9, 5.9) < 0.001
Unintentional loss of faeces 65 (13.6) 32.2 (21.2, 35.6) 9.1 (7.4, 10.9) 3.2 (2.2, 4.8) < 0.001
Self-reported urine incontinence 212 (44.3) 16.1 (12.5, 19.6) 7.5 (5.5, 9.5) 2.0 (1.4, 2.9) < 0.001
Medical diagnosis incontinence 95 (19.8) 16.1 (10.5, 21.7) 10.3 (8.4, 12.3) 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 0.054
PRAFAB score ≥11 100 (81.3) 12.3 (8.0, 16.6) 12.0 (3.1, 21.0) 1.0 (0.4, 2.3) 0.987
PRAFAB: Pad use 91 (74.0) 3.6 (2.5, 5.2) 3.2 (1.7, 6.0) 1.2 (0.6, 2.5) 0.680
Creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min 43 (9.5) 12.1 (5.0, 19.3) 10.6 (8.7, 12.5) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 0.794
CRP > 5 mg/L 159 (34.0) 12.9 (9.3, 16.6) 10.1 (8.0, 12.2) 1.2 (0.9, 1.8) 0.222
  1. py = person-years; CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio; CRP = C-reactive protein; GDS-15 = 'Geriatric Depression Scale' with 15 items (only administered to participants with MMSE ≥19 (n = 393)); IPSS = 'International Prostate Symptom Score' (only administered to male participants with MMSE-score ≥19 (n = 139)); MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; PRAFAB = five-item questionnaire score incontinence (only administered to participants with MMSE-score ≥19 (n = 123)); UTI = urinary tract infection.
  2. * Definition of reference groups: males, living independently, pension or other extra income, additional education after primary school, not smoking, BMI < 27, MMSE ≥19, GDS-15 ≤4, no disability in daily living, no diabetes, no stroke, IPSS score < 8, no UTI between the ages of 85 and 86 years, no history of cancer, no unintentional loss of faeces, no urine incontinence, no diagnosis incontinence GP/NP, PRAFAB < 8, creatinine clearance ≥30 mL/min, CRP ≤5 mg/L.
  3. † Disability in daily living = unable to do any one of the nine basic activities of daily living independently, according to the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale.