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Table 4 Predictive factors for UTI stratified for living situation by univariate Cox regression analysis after the age of 86 years

From: Predictive factors of urinary tract infections among the oldest old in the general population. a population-based prospective follow-up study

  Independently (N = 372) Long-term care facility (N = 107)
  N HR (95%CI) P-value N HR (95%CI) P-value
Socio-demographic factors       
Female 242 1.4 (0.9, 2.3) 0.127 80 2.1 (0.9, 4.9) 0.098
Low income 170 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.914 68 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 0.650
Primary school only 221 1.2 (0.8, 1.9) 0.452 75 2.3 (1.1, 4.9) 0.036
Smoking (current) 55 1.1 (0.6, 1.9) 0.817 15 1.4 (0.6, 3.1) 0.443
Body Mass Index ≥27 171 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.329 41 0.9 (0.4, 1.7) 0.655
Functioning       
Severe cognitive impairment
(MMSE < 19)
36 1.9 (1.1, 3.4) 0.030 54 2.3 (1.2, 4.4) 0.009
Depressive symptoms (GDS-15 > 4) 46 1.2 (0.6, 2.2) 0.578 12 0.2 (0.0, 1.7) 0.146
Disability in daily living † 191 1.9 (1.3, 2.9) 0.002 92 3.6 (1.1, 11.7) 0.033
Co-morbidities       
Diabetes mellitus 53 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.536 23 1.1 (0.5, 2.6) 0.759
Stroke 31 1.4 (0.8, 2.8) 0.269 29 1.6 (0.9, 3.1) 0.143
Cancer 80 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) 0.845 17 1.0 (0.4, 2.4) 0.963
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
(IPSS score ≥8)
49 1.3 (0.6, 2.9) 0.521 4 NA NA
UTI between the ages of 85 and 86 years 41 3.3 (2.1, 5.3) < 0.001 31 4.1 (2.2, 7.5) < 0.001
Unintentional loss of faeces 35 2.7 (1.6, 4.8) < 0.001 30 2.5 (1.3, 4.6) 0.004
Self-reported urine incontinence 143 1.7 (1.2, 2.6) 0.007 69 1.9 (0.9, 4.0) 0.071
Medical diagnosis incontinence 69 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.260 26 1.7 (0.9, 3.4) 0.110
PRAFAB score ≥11 76 0.7 (0.3, 1.7) 0.462 24 NA NA
PRAFAB: Pad use 69 1.0 (0.4, 2.2) 0.949 22 1.9 (0.3, 15.1) 0.530
Creatinine clearance < 30 mL/minute 29 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) 0.487 14 1.8 (0.5, 5.8) 0.337
CRP > 5 mg/L 116 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.425 43 1.1 (0.6, 2.1) 0.664
  1. HR = hazard ratio; CI = confidence interval; CRP = C-reactive protein; GDS-15 = 'Geriatric Depression Scale' with 15 items (only administered to participants with MMSE ≥19); IPSS = 'International Prostate Symptom Score' (only administered to male participants with MMSE-score ≥19); MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; PRAFAB = 5-item questionnaire score incontinence (only administered to participants with MMSE-score ≥19); py = person-years; UTI = urinary tract infection.
  2. † Disability in daily living = unable to do any one of the nine basic activities of daily living independently, according to the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale
  3. NA = not applicable