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Table 1 Summary of articles evaluating hospitalist performance (n = 65)a

From: Do hospitalist physicians improve the quality of inpatient care delivery? A systematic review of process, efficiency and outcome measures

        Hospitalist performance
Source Design Hospital type Study population Sample Comparison Quality score Processes of care Operating efficiency Patient outcomes
Abenhaim et al. [44] RC Teaching Adults admitted to either GMS or medical short-stay unit 2,722 F vs. TWS 8 ↑,*,ǂ ↑,*,ǂ ↑,*,ǂ
Auerbach et al. [85] RC Teaching Adults admitted to GMS 5,308 A vs. C 24 -
Auerbach and Pantilat [76] RC Teaching Adults admitted to GMS who died while in hospital 148 A vs. C 21  
Batsis et al. [94] B/A Teaching Seniors admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture 466 Fb vs. TWS 13    -,*
Bekmezian et al. [79] RC Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients with oncologic, hematologic or gastroenterologic disease 925 F vs. TWS 17   ↓,*
Bell et al. [52] QE Teaching (six sites) All patients admitted to GMS 1,078 Mixed practice types 6 -,*   
Bellet and Whitaker [80] B/A Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients admitted to GMS 1,440 A vs. TWS and C 24 -,* ↓,*
Boyd et al. [95] RC Teaching Paediatric patients admitted to GMS 1,009 P vs. TWS 16   
Carek et al. [96] RC Community Adults admitted to GMS 5,453 P vs. C P vs. TWS 21   ↓,* ↓ -,* -
Craig et al. [61] RC Community (16 sites) Adults admitted from one HMO to GMS   P vs. C 8   ↑,ǂ -,ǂ
Davis et al. [65] RC Community All patients admitted to GMS 2,124 Pc vs. C 13 ↑,* -
Dhuper and Choksi [86] B/A Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 10,966 Ac vs. TWS 14    ↑,*
Diamond et al. [13] B/A Teaching Adults admitted to GMS 3,299 A vs. C 16   ↑,* ↑,*
Dwight et al. [45] RC Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients admitted to GMS 3,807 F vs. TWS 22 - -
Dynan et al. [97] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 5,543 Fc vs. TWS 14   -
Everett et al. [98] RC Community All patients admitted to GMS 11,750 P vs. C 15   -
Everett et al. [87] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 22,792 P vs. C P vs. TWS 14   ↑ ↓ - ↑
Freese et al. [60] B/A Community All patients admitted to GMS   P vs. C 6 ↑,*,ǂ ↑,*,ǂ  
Gittell et al. [63] RC Community All patients admitted to GMS 6,686 P vs. C 7  
Go et al. [51] QE Teaching (six sites) Adults admitted to GMS with diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage 450 A vs. TWS 22 -,* -
Gregory et al. [99] B/A Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 402 F vs. TWS 8   ↑,* -,*
Hackner et al. [68] PC Teaching Adults on Medicaid admitted to GMS 1,637 A vs. C 19 ↑,* ↑,* -,*
Halasyamani et al. [100] RC Teaching Adults admitted to GMS 10,595 P vs. C A vs. C 21   ↑ ↑ - -
Huddleston et al. [48] RCT Teaching Adults undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty 469 Fb vs. TWS 26  
Kaboli et al. [50] QE Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 1,706 A vs. TWS 23   -
Kearns et al. [56] QE Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 4,455 A vs. TWS 26 -,* - -
Khasgiwali et al. [101] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 1,916 P and A vs. TWS 14 -,* -,* -,*
Krantz et al. [58] B/A Teaching All patients admitted to chest pain observational unit 493 Pb vs. TWS 19   ↑,* -,*
Kulaga et al. [78] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 2,707 A vs. C 8   ↑,*,ǂ ↑,*
Kuo et al. [102] RC Mixed (4,359 sites) 5% national sample of admissions among Medicare beneficiaries 314,590 Mixed practice types 16   
Landrigan et al. [103] TS Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients admitted to GMS from three HMOs 7,748 Ac vs. C 15   -
Lindenauer et al. [74] RC Teaching Adults admitted with heart failure 326 P and A vs. C 14 -,*
Lindenauer et al. [92] RC Mixed (45 sites) Adults admitted with pneumonia, heart failure, chest pain, stroke, UTI, COPD or acute MI 76,926 Mixed practice types 20   -
Maa et al. [62] B/A Teaching Adults undergoing surgical appendectomy   A vs. TWS 7   ↑,*  
Meltzer et al. [54] QE Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 6,511 A vs. TWS 20  
Molinari and Short [104] B/A Community Adults admitted from one HMO 1,319 Pc vs. C 8   
Ogershok et al. [66] B/A Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients admitted to GMS 2,177 A vs. TWS 14 ↑,* ↑,* -,*
Palacio et al. [88] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 5,943 F vs. TWS 11   ↑,*
Palmer et al. [49] QE Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 2,464 Ac vs. TWS 25 ↑,*
Parekh et al. [105] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 2,552 A vs. TWS 19   - -
Phy et al. [82] B/A Teaching Older adults admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture 466 Fb,c vs. TWS 15   -,*
Pinzuer et al. [77] B/A Teaching Adults admitted for lower-extremity salvage or reconstructive surgery 140 Fb vs. TWS 9   ↓,ǂ,*
Ravikumar et al. [83] B/A Teaching (four sites) Adult surgical patients 39,769 Fb,c vs. TWS 8   ↓,ǂ,* ↓,*
Reddy et al. [72] RC Teaching All patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia 151 A vs. C and TWS 9 - -  
Rifkin et al. [70] RC Community Adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia 455 P vs. C 20 ↑,* -,*
Rifkin et al. [106] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 11,388 F vs. C 18   -  
Rifkin et al. [69] RC Community All patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia 158 F vs. C 11 ↑,*   
Roy et al. [30] RC Teaching Adults admitted with hip fracture 118 F vs. C 9   ↑,*  
Roytman et al. [67] RC Teaching Adults admitted with congestive heart failure 342 F vs. C 20
Salottolo et al. [89] B/A Teaching Adult trauma admissions 500 F vs. TWS 5   -
Scheurer et al. [107] RC Mixed (29 sites) All patients admitted with bacterial pneumonia 11,969 Mixed practice types 7   ↑,*  
Schneider et al. [53] QE Teaching (six sites) All admissions to GMS with HIV infection 1,207 A vs. TWS 17 - - -
Sharma et al. [9] RC Mixed (11 sites) Older adults on Medicaid with advanced lung cancer 21,183 Mixed practice types 14   
Simon et al. [84] B/A Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion 759 Fb vs. TWS 8   
Sloan et al. [24] B/A Community VA Adults admitted to inpatient psychiatric unit 1,409 Fc vs. Cc 18   -,* ↑,*
Smith et al. [71] RC Teaching Adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia 45 P vs. C 14 - -,*
Somekh et al. [59] RC Teaching Admissions to GMS or cardiac observational unit for chest pain 750 F vs. C F vs. cardiologist 11 ↑,* ↓,* ↓,ǂ ↓ - ↓
Southern et al. [108] RC Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 9,037 A vs. TWS 19   -
Srivastava et al. [64] B/A Paediatric teaching Paediatric patients from one HMO admitted with asthma, dehydration or viral illness 1,970 A vs. TWS 19   
Stein et al. [73] RC Teaching Adult admitted with community-acquired pneumonia 237 A vs. C 11 -,* ↑,* -,*
Tenner et al. [57] B/A Paediatric teaching (two sites) Paediatric admissions to ICU 1,211 P vs. TWS 17  
Tingle and Lambert [109] RC Teaching Adults admitted to GMS 529 F vs. TWS 14   - -,*
Vasilevskis et al. [75] RC Teaching (six sites) Adults with heart failure admitted to GMS 372 Mixed practice types 18 - -
Wachter et al. [55] QE Teaching All patients admitted to GMS 1,623 A vs. TWS 18 -,* -
Wells et al. [110] PC Community Paediatric patients admitted to GMS 181 P vs. C 5   -,*
  1. aRCT, randomized, controlled trial; QE, quasi-experimental design; TS, time series; PC, prospective cohort; RC, retrospective cohort; B/A, before versus after; CS, cross-sectional survey; GMS, general medical service; HMO, health maintenance organization; UTI, urinary tract infection; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI, myocardial infarction; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ICU, intensive care unit; P, private hospitalist attending physician; F, nonacademic faculty hospitalist attending physician; A, academic hospitalist attending physician; C, community-based physician; TWS, traditional academic attending physicians with teaching responsibilities; bhospitalists were comanaging their patients' care with comparison healthcare providers; cuse of physician's assistants, nurse practitioners and/or discharge planners in the provision of care; ↑ indicates improved performance by hospitalists; - indicates no difference in performance between providers; ↓ indicates worse performance by hospitalists; ǂ indicates that a P value or confidence interval was not provided, so results may or may not be statistically significant; *indicates that results are unadjusted.