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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of 65 comparative evaluations of hospitalist performancea

From: Do hospitalist physicians improve the quality of inpatient care delivery? A systematic review of process, efficiency and outcome measures

Study characteristics Studies, n(%)b
Country of research  
   Canada 2 (3.0)
   United States 63 (97.0)
Research design  
   Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trial 9 (13.8)
   Interrupted time series 1 (1.5)
   Prospective cohort 2 (3.1)
   Retrospective cohort 35 (53.8)
   Before and after 18 (27.7)
Patient eligibility  
   Adult patients only 25 (38.5)
   Paediatric patients only 10 (15.4)
   Older adult patients only (age ≥65 years) 3 (4.6)
   Medicare/Medicaid enrolment 3 (4.6)
   HMO/VA enrolment 5 (7.7)
Diagnostic/disease eligibility  
   Asthma/bronchiolitis 3 (4.6)
   Chest pain 6 (9.2)
   Cancer/haematology 2 (3.1)
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4 (6.2)
   Community-acquired or bacterial pneumonia 14 (21.5)
   Gastrointestinal/digestive disorders 8 (12.3)
   Heart failure 9 (13.8)
   Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (1.5)
   Hypovolemia/dehydration 2 (3.1)
   Myocardial infarction 2 (3.1)
   Nutritional/metabolic disorders 4 (6.2)
   Orthopaedic and other surgical procedures 9 (13.8)
   Psychiatric illness/substance dependency 2 (3.1)
   Stroke 4 (6.2)
   Trauma 2 (3.1)
   Urinary tract infection 4 (6.2)
   Viral illness 2 (3.1)
Hospital type  
   Teaching hospital 54 (83.1)
   Community/rural hospital 11 (16.9)
Location of care  
   General medical/surgical service 60 (92.3)
   Chest pain observation unit 2 (3.1)
   Intensive care unit 1 (1.5)
   Medical short-stay observation unit 1 (1.5)
   Psychiatric unit 1 (1.5)
Hospitalist practice structureb  
   Private hospitalists 22 (33.8)
   Nonacademic faculty hospitalists 26 (40.0)
   Academic hospitalist attending physicians 33 (47.7)
Mix of practice structures  
Comparative practice structureb  
   Community-based physicians 34 (52.3)
   Traditional academic attending physicians 41 (63.1)
  1. aHMO, health maintenance organization; VA, Veterans Affairs; bpercentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding; cnumber of articles may not sum to 65 as several studies compared more than one physician structure.