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Table 5 Average costs per capita in 2014 and 95% CI associated with the 10 selected chronic diseases according to type of comorbidity – two-stage model estimates (n = 476,252)

From: The extra cost of comorbidity: multiple illnesses and the economic burden of non-communicable diseases

Cost associated with…   Comorbidity
No other comorbidity Stroke Heart disease Cancers a Diabetes Chronic kidney disease
Stroke 3466; 2973–3959   4203; 3524–4882 2784; 1913–3656 5659; 4804–6513 7833; 6032–9635
Heart disease 1828; 1570–2087 2566; 2055–3077   2156; 1721–2591 2687; 2293–3081 5172; 4215–6130
Cancersa 5115; 4322–5909 4434; 3229–5639 5443; 3229–5639   6240; 5143–7336 14,042; 11,528–16,556
Diabetes 1776; 1510–2041 3969; 3326–4611 2634; 2218–3051 2900; 2378–3423   8349; 7036–9662
Chronic kidney disease 8323; 7090–9555 12,690; 10,557–14,823 11,666; 9826–13,507 17,249; 14,365–20,134 14,895; 12,638–17,153  
Respiratory illnessb 1285; 1103–1466 1775; 1374–2175 2332; 1956–2709 3016; 2258–3774 1955; 1663–2246 4440; 3630–5249
Cirrhosis 4225; 3623–4827 13,625; 10,987–16,263 5808; 4845–6771 12,402; 10,044–14,759 5377; 4543–6211 15,256; 12,593–17,920
Major depression 1528; 1303–1754 2421; 1356–3486 1929; 1527–2331 2803; 2020–3587 1879; 1565–2194 2900; 1664–4135
Neurological disorders 2121; 1798–2445 1617; 839–2395 2404; 1809–3000 3648; 2754–4541 3847; 3045–4649 1142; 239–2523
Alcohol user disorders 2323; 1924–2722 4303; 2939–5667 3319; 2712–3927 5492; 3820–7163 4056; 3401–4711 9344; 7457–11,231
Cost associated with… Comorbidity  
Respiratory illness b Cirrhosis Major depression Neurological disorders Alcohol use disorders  
Stroke 3955; 3327–4584 12,865; 10,309–15,422 4358; 3136–5580 2961; 2200–3722 5445; 4167–6724  
Heart disease 2876; 2436–3316 3411; 2676–4146 2229; 1812–2645 2111; 1605–2618 2825; 2299–3350  
Cancersa 6847; 5508–8185 13,292; 10,624–15,960 6390; 5184–7596 6642; 5368–7915 8284; 6319–10,249  
Diabetes 2446; 2092–2800 2927; 2339–3516 2127; 1736–2517 3502; 2852–4151 3509; 2911–4107  
Chronic kidney disease 11477; 9762–13,193 19,354; 16,269–22,439 9694; 7992–11,396 7343; 5447–9240 15,344; 12,813–17,874  
Respiratory illnessb   2331; 1837–2825 1389; 1003–1774 2275; 1866–2683 2180; 1810–2550  
Cirrhosis 1632; 1268–1997   5500; 4434–6565 6375; 5125–7626 4520; 3798–5242  
Major depression 1632; 1267–1998 2803; 1902–3703   2322; 1080–3565 1871; 1391–2350  
Neurological disorders 3111; 2587–3636 4271; 3254–5288 2915; 1607–4224   2393; 1877–2909  
Alcohol user disorders 3219; 2666–3772 2618; 1964–3271 2665; 2012–3318 2594; 2059–3129   
  1. aBreast/Lung/Colorectal/Stomach/Liver/Kidney/Pancreatic/Oesophageal
  2. bChronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma
  3. Note: To account for the different sociodemographic structures (e.g. younger age profiles for people without comorbidity), the same set of weights is used to estimate the average cost of the disease for people with and without comorbidity