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Table 2 Summary of study characteristics for each antimalarial drug

From: The arrhythmogenic cardiotoxicity of the quinoline and structurally related antimalarial drugs: a systematic review

  Quinine (51 studies) Mefloquine (45 studies) Lumefantrine (39 studies) Piperaquine (24 studies) Halofantrine (22 studies) Chloroquine (17 studies) SP (14 studies) Amodiaquine (10 studies) Primaquine (7 studies)
Range of dates studies were published 1982–2014 1983–2012 1997–2014 2003–2016 1993–2004 1983–2014 1983–2015 1987–2014 1992–2015
Countries where studies were most frequently conducted in (% of studies) Thailand (43%)
Vietnam (8%)
Myanmar (8%)
Thailand (54%)
Brazil (11%)
Thailand (23%)
Kenya (13%)
Thailand (25%)
Cambodia (17%)
France (32%)
Nigeria (18%)
Thailand (41%)
India (24%)
Brazil (36%)
Thailand (21%)
No majority (each trial in different country) Thailand (71%)
Median (range) number of participants 59 (7–561) 94 (8–3673) 165 (12–1553) 130 (12–10,925) 38.5 (8–120) 58 (11–456) 99 (20–3673) 32 (10–336) 16 (8–329)
% (number) of studies OLRCT 43 (22) 56 (25) 36 (14) 54 (13) 18 (4) 18 (3) 50 (7) 40 (4) 14 (1)
% (number) of studies DBRCT 6 (3) 24 (11) 18 (7) 8 (2) 9 (2) 35 (6) 36 (5) 0 (0) 14 (1)
% (number) of studies OLRCTX 0 (0) 2 (1) 10 (4) 8 (2) 14 (3) 6 (1) 0 (0) 40 (4) 57 (4)
% (number) of studies non-comparative 29 (15) 9 (5) 21 (8) 13 (3) 45 (10) 6 (1) 0 (0) 10 (1) 14 (1)
% (number) of studies primary outcome CV safety 20 (10) 13 (6) 13 (5) 13 (3) 41 (9) 18 (3) 14 (2) 20 (2) 0 (0)
% (number) of trials PK or PK/PD primary aim 26 (13) 24 (11) 26 (10) 21 (5) 27 (6) 53 (9) 7 (1) 60 (6) 71 (5)
% (number) of papers PK/PD primary aim 6 (3) 9 (4) 10 (4) 4 (1) 13 (3) 18 (3) 0 (0) 10 (1) 0 (0)
  1. SP sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, OLRCT open-label randomised control trial, DBRCT double-blind randomised control trial, OLRCTX open-label randomised control crossover trial, CV cardiovascular, PK pharmacokinetic, PD pharmacodynamic