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Table 3 Summary of patient characteristics for each antimalarial drug

From: The arrhythmogenic cardiotoxicity of the quinoline and structurally related antimalarial drugs: a systematic review

  Quinine (51 studies) Mefloquine (45 studies) Lumefantrine (39 studies) Piperaquine (24 studies) Halofantrine (22 studies) Chloroquine (17 studies) SP (14 studies) Amodiaquine (10 studies) Primaquine (7 studies)
Median of mean age (years) 25.6 26 26 23.4 19.9 20.8 22.1 33
% missing data for mean age 55 80 64 38 41 71 93 60 57
Median of median age (years) 16.4 24 25 23 23.8
% missing data for median age 93 96 85 88 91 94 100 100 100
Age range (years) 0.3–90 0.4–88 0.2–75 6–65 0.25–84 1–74 12–62 0.8–65 16–74
Total number of males 2571 5137 5226 4522 684 1052 723 287 373
Total number of females 1141 1848 4233 2682 256 422 377 519 118
% (number) trials including healthy participants 14 (7) 22 (10) 28 (11) 29 (7) 18 (4) 35 (6) 14 (2) 40 (4) 71 (5)
% (number) trials including P. falciparum infection 88 (45) 78 (35) 72 (28) 71 (17) 77 (17) 41 (7) 86 (12) 60 14 (1)
% (number) trials including P. vivax infection 4 (2) 0 (0) 5 (2) 17 (4) 14 (3) 29 (5) 7 (1) 0 (0) 14 (1)
% (number) trials including uncomplicated malariainfection 45 (23) 69 (31) 72 (28) 71 (17) 77 (17) 35 (6) 71 (10) 60 (6) 29 (2)
% (number) trials including complicated or severe malaria infection 51 (26) 4 (2) (both studies also trialled quinine) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12 (2) (1 study just chloroquine, the other also trialled quinine) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
% (number) trials excluding any medical comorbidities 31 (16) 58 (26) 62 (24) 71 (17) 68 (15) 65 (11) 57 (8) 90 (9) 86 (6)
% (number) trials specifically excluding cardiovascular comorbidities 12 (6) 16 (7) 49 (19) 38 (9) 46 (10) 41 (7) 14 (2) 60 (6) 57 (4)
% (number) trials excluding any co-medication use 65 (33) 53 (24) 62 (24) 42 (10) 54 (12) 71 (12) 57 (8) 100 (10) 86 (6)
% (number) trials excluding co-medication with antimalarials 57 (29) 44 (20) 39 (15) 13 (3) 36 (8) 24 (4) 50 (7) 80 (8) 43 (3)
% (number) trials excluding drugs which interfere with cardiovascular system 6 (3) 2 (1) 23 (9) 13 (3) 18 (4) 12 (2) 0 (0) 30 (3) 0 (0)
  1. Unavailable data is indicated by ‘–’
  2. SP sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine