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Table 3 Results from analysis of change scores using linear mixed model: mean difference scores (SE), 95% CI, and effect sizes

From: A citizen science study of short physical activity breaks at school: improvements in cognition and wellbeing with self-paced activity

OutcomeSelf-paced activity vs. controlBleep test vs. controlSelf-paced vs. bleep test
Mean diff (SE)95% CIp valueEffect sizeMean diff (SE)95% CIp valueEffect sizeMean diff (SE)95% CIp valueEffect size
Affect
 Unadjusted0.21 (0.07)0.05 to 0.370.0060.06− 0.07 (0.08)− 0.26 to 0.121.0000.020.28 (0.07)0.11 to 0.440.0000.07
 Fully adjusted0.21 (0.07)0.05 to 0.380.0050.06− 0.05 (0.08)− 0.25 to 0.141.0000.010.27 (0.07)0.10 to 0.440.0010.07
Alertness
 Unadjusted0.32 (0.04)0.22 to 0.410.0000.150.13 (0.05)0.02 to 0.230.0140.060.19 (0.04)0.10 to 0.280.0000.08
 Fully adjusted0.31 (0.04)0.22 to 0.410.0000.150.13 (0.05)0.02 to 0.230.0170.050.19 (0.04)0.09 to 0.280.0000.09
Inhibition adj
 Unadjusted− 28.03 (3.42)− 36.22 to − 19.840.0000.176.63 (3.67)− 2.15 to 15.420.2110.04− 34.66 (3.25)− 42.45 to − 26.880.0000.22
 Fully adjusted− 27.93 (3.44)− 36.16 to − 19.700.0000.176.48 (3.70)− 2.39 to 15.350.2400.04− 34.41 (3.29)− 42.29 to − 26.540.0000.22
Verbal WM
 Unadjusted1.77 (0.36)0.91 to 2.640.0000.10− 0.45 (0.40)− 1.40 to 0.500.7770.022.22 (0.37)1.34 to 3.110.0000.13
 Fully adjusted1.74 (0.36)0.87 to 2.610.0000.10− 0.38 (0.40)− 1.34 to 0.591.0000.022.12 (0.38)1.23 to 3.020.0000.12
Visual-spatial WM
 Unadjusted− 1.81 (0.94)− 4.06 to 0.450.1650.040.91 (1.01)− 1.52 to 3.341.0000.02− 2.72 (0.92)− 4.92 to − 0.510.0100.06
 Fully adjusted− 1.89 (0.95)− 4.15 to 0.380.1400.040.62 (1.02)− 1.84 to 3.071.0000.01− 2.50 (0.93)− 4.73 to − 0.280.0210.06
  1. Fully adjusted models include age, sex, SES, and all interaction terms
  2. Inhibition adj inhibition reaction time adjusted for errors, Verbal WM verbal working memory: total number of words, Visual-spatial WM visual-spatial working memory: actual adjusted for optimum