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Table 5 Mediation and moderation models for verbal working memory

From: A citizen science study of short physical activity breaks at school: improvements in cognition and wellbeing with self-paced activity

 Total effectDirect effectIndirect effect
Beta (SE)95% CIp valueBeta (SE)95% CIp valueBeta (SE)95% CIBeta (SE)95% CI
Control vs. self-paced− 1.47 (0.01)− 1.50 to − 1.440.000− 1.43 (0.50)− 2.42 to − 0.440.0046    
 Affect      − 0.11 (0.06)− 0.28 to − 0.02  
 Alertness      0.07 (0.11)− 0.14 to 0.30  
 VO2 max → control        0.18 (0.08)0.01 to 0.34
 VO2 max → SPA        − 0.02 (0.09)− 0.20 to 0.16
Control vs. bleep test0.34 (0.02)0.31 to 0.370.0000.33 (0.52)− 0.70 to 1.360.5271    
 Affect      0.02 (0.03)− 0.01 to 0.13  
 Alertness      − 0.01 (0.05)− 0.12 to 0.07  
 VO2 max → control        0.10 (0.08)− 0.06 to 0.26
 VO2 max → bleep        0.06 (0.08)− 0.10 to 0.23
Self-paced vs. bleep test2.50 (0.01)2.47 to 2.520.0002.44 (0.51)1.43 to 3.440.000    
 Affect      0.14 (0.07)0.04 to 0.31  
 Alertness      − 0.08 (0.06)− 0.23 to 0.02  
 VO2 max → SPA        0.01 (0.08)− 0.13 to 0.16
 VO2 max → bleep        0.08 (0.08)− 0.07 to 0.23
  1. VO2 max = age-adjusted VO2 max and considered to be constant (e.g. not a repeated measure) therefore entered as a moderator in analysis