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  1. The number of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in need of palliative care is growing in the Western world. Therefore, it is foreseen that significantly higher percentages of budgets will be spent...

    Authors: Anne B. Wichmann, Eddy M. M. Adang, Kris C. P. Vissers, Katarzyna Szczerbińska, Marika Kylänen, Sheila Payne, Giovanni Gambassi, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Tinne Smets, Lieve Van den Block, Luc Deliens, Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen and Yvonne Engels

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:258

    Content type: Research article

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  2. In the absence of definitive diagnosis, healthcare providers are likely to prescribe empirical antibacterials to those who test negative for malaria. This problem is of critical importance in Southern Asia (SA...

    Authors: Poojan Shrestha, Prabin Dahal, Chinwe Ogbonnaa-Njoku, Debashish Das, Kasia Stepniewska, Nigel V. Thomas, Heidi Hopkins, John A. Crump, David Bell, Paul N. Newton, Elizabeth A. Ashley and Philippe J. Guérin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:299

    Content type: Research article

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  3. In malaria-endemic countries, febrile episodes caused by diseases other than malaria are a growing concern. However, limited knowledge of the prevalent etiologic agents and their geographic distributions restr...

    Authors: José Moreira, Janaina Barros, Oscar Lapouble, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Ingrid Felger, Patricia Brasil, Sabine Dittrich and Andre M. Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:294

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The availability of reliable point-of-care tests for malaria has heralded a paradigm shift in the management of febrile illnesses away from presumptive antimalarial therapy. In the absence of a definitive diag...

    Authors: Jeanne Elven, Prabin Dahal, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Nigel V. Thomas, Poojan Shrestha, Kasia Stepniewska, John A. Crump, Paul N. Newton, David Bell, Hugh Reyburn, Heidi Hopkins and Philippe J. Guérin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:279

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) and CT colonography (CTC) are minimally invasive techniques for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Our objective is to compare CCE and CTC for the identification of patients with ...

    Authors: Begoña González-Suárez, Mario Pagés, Isis Karina Araujo, Cristina Romero, Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel, Juan Ramón Ayuso, Àngels Pozo, Maria Vila-Casadesús, Anna Serradesanferm, Àngels Ginès, Glòria Fernández-Esparrach, Maria Pellisé, María López-Cerón, David Flores, Henry Córdova, Oriol Sendino…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:255

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Due to the high prevalence of obesity and the difficulty in maintaining weight loss, repeated bouts of weight loss are a common occurrence. However, there are inconsistencies in epidemiological studies regardi...

    Authors: Erik A. Willis, Wen-Yi Huang, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Michael F. Leitzmann, Elizabeth A. Salerno, Charles E. Matthews and Sonja I. Berndt

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:248

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Mechanistic studies suggest that mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) dysfunction may be associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) and incident AF in ...

    Authors: Di Zhao, Traci M. Bartz, Nona Sotoodehnia, Wendy S. Post, Susan R. Heckbert, Alvaro Alonso, Ryan J. Longchamps, Christina A. Castellani, Yun Soo Hong, Jerome I. Rotter, Henry J. Lin, Brian O’Rourke, Nathan Pankratz, John A. Lane, Stephanie Y. Yang, Eliseo Guallar…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:246

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The universal two-child policy in China which was announced in October 2015 might affect the caesarean birth rate. Few studies reported the caesarean birth rate affected by the policy especially after the univ...

    Authors: Jie Yan, Long Wang, Ying Yang, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Yuan He, Zuoqi Peng, Yuanyuan Wang, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Xu Ma and Huixia Yang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:249

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A national endoscopic screening program for gastric cancer was rolled out in Japan in 2015. We used a microsimulation model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of current screening guidelines and alternative sc...

    Authors: Hsi-Lan Huang, Chi Yan Leung, Eiko Saito, Kota Katanoda, Chin Hur, Chung Yin Kong, Shuhei Nomura and Kenji Shibuya

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:257

    Content type: Research article

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  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Dayle Sampson, Thomas D. Yager, Brian Fox, Laura Shallcross, Leo McHugh, Therese Seldon, Antony Rapisarda, Roslyn A. Hendriks, Richard B. Brandon, Krupa Navalkar, Nandi Simpson, Sian Stafford, Eliza Gil, Cristina Venturini, Evi Tsaliki, Jennifer Roe…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:293

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:185

  11. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Meghan H. Puglia, Kathleen M. Krol, Manuela Missana, Cabell L. Williams, Travis S. Lillard, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly and Tobias Grossmann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:292

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:244

  12. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Giovanni Ostuzzi, Davide Papola, Chiara Gastaldon, Georgios Schoretsanitis, Federico Bertolini, Francesco Amaddeo, Alessandro Cuomo, Robin Emsley, Andrea Fagiolini, Giuseppe Imperadore, Taishiro Kishimoto, Giulia Michencigh, Michela Nosé, Marianna Purgato, Serdar Dursun, Brendon Stubbs…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:291

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:215

  13. Barriers to accessing mental health care during pregnancy and the first postnatal year (perinatal period) seem to be greater for ethnic minority women; however, there is no reliable large-scale data about thei...

    Authors: Jelena Jankovic, Jake Parsons, Nikolina Jovanović, Giles Berrisford, Alex Copello, Qulsom Fazil and Stefan Priebe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:245

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Armed conflict can indirectly affect population health through detrimental impacts on political and social institutions and destruction of infrastructure. This study aimed to quantify indirect mortality impact...

    Authors: Mohammed Jawad, Thomas Hone, Eszter P. Vamos, Paul Roderick, Richard Sullivan and Christopher Millett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:266

    Content type: Research article

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  15. When designing a clinical trial, explicitly defining the treatment estimands of interest (that which is to be estimated) can help to clarify trial objectives and ensure the questions being addressed by the trial ...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Tim P. Morris, Ian R. White, Conor D. Tweed, Suzie Cro, Darren Dahly, Tra My Pham, Hanif Esmail, Abdel Babiker and James R. Carpenter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:286

    Content type: Opinion

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  16. Cancer patients have a highly increased risk of psychiatric disorders following diagnosis, compared with cancer-free individuals. Inflammation is involved in the development of both cancer and psychiatric diso...

    Authors: Kejia Hu, Arvid Sjölander, Donghao Lu, Adam K. Walker, Erica K. Sloan, Katja Fall, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Per Hall, Karin E. Smedby and Fang Fang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:238

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Authors: Alice Norton, Louise Sigfrid, Adeniyi Aderoba, Naima Nasir, Peter G. Bannister, Shelui Collinson, James Lee, Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Josephine P. Golding, Evelyn Depoortere, Gail Carson, Barbara Kerstiëns and Yazdan Yazdanpanah

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:273

    Content type: Commentary

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  18. With universal health coverage a key component of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, targeted monitoring is crucial for reducing inequalities in the provision of services. However, monitoring largely occu...

    Authors: A. S. Wigley, N. Tejedor-Garavito, V. Alegana, A. Carioli, C. W. Ruktanonchai, C. Pezzulo, Z. Matthews, A. J. Tatem and K. Nilsen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:237

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic worldwide. Old age and underlying illnesses are associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients. However, whether frailty, a common geriatric ...

    Authors: Yao Ma, Lisha Hou, Xiufang Yang, Zhixin Huang, Xue Yang, Na Zhao, Min He, Yixin Shi, Yan Kang, Jirong Yue and Chenkai Wu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:274

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Results from clinical trials can be susceptible to bias if investigators choose their analysis approach after seeing trial data, as this can allow them to perform multiple analyses and then choose the method t...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Gordon Forbes and Suzie Cro

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:253

    Content type: Correspondence

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  21. New York City was the first major urban center of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. Cases are clustered in the city, with certain neighborhoods experiencing more cases than others. We investigate whether poten...

    Authors: Richard S. Whittle and Ana Diaz-Artiles

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:271

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Data on the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle-based diabetes prevention programs are mostly from high-income countries, which cannot be extrapolated to low- and middle-income countries. We performed a trial-based c...

    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Brian Oldenburg, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Pilvikki Absetz, Jonathan E. Shaw, Robyn J. Tapp, Paul Z. Zimmet, Sajitha Balachandran, Suman S. Shetty, Zahra Aziz and Ajay Mahal

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:251

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on health systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. As the pandemic escalates, dete...

    Authors: Eleanor M. Rees, Emily S. Nightingale, Yalda Jafari, Naomi R. Waterlow, Samuel Clifford, Carl A. B. Pearson, CMMID Working Group, Thibaut Jombart, Simon R. Procter and Gwenan M. Knight

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:270

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate wh...

    Authors: Nazlisadat Seyed Khoei, Mazda Jenab, Neil Murphy, Barbara L. Banbury, Robert Carreras-Torres, Vivian Viallon, Tilman Kühn, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Amanda J. Cross, Elisabete Weiderpass, Magdalena Stepien, Andrew Bulmer, Anne Tjønneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Gianluca Severi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:229

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Identifying hotspots of tuberculosis transmission can inform spatially targeted active case-finding interventions. While national tuberculosis programs maintain notification registers which represent a potenti...

    Authors: Kenneth S. Gunasekera, Jon Zelner, Mercedes C. Becerra, Carmen Contreras, Molly F. Franke, Leonid Lecca, Megan B. Murray, Joshua L. Warren and Ted Cohen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:234

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Two studies have suggested that severe prolonged nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral problems in offspring, with smaller sample size and short-term follow-up. Moreo...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Edmund T. Rolls, Xiujuan Du, Jingnan Du, Dexin Yang, Jiong Li, Fei Li, Wei Cheng and Jianfeng Feng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:228

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Women with diminished ovarian reserve are known to have increased cardiovascular risk, whether there is a continuous association between the ovarian reserve biomarkers; anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral fol...

    Authors: Karema Al Rashid, Amy Taylor, Mary Ann Lumsden, Neil Goulding, Deborah A. Lawlor and Scott M. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:247

    Content type: Research article

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  28. An effective vaccine against Bordetella pertussis was introduced into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) by WHO in 1974, leading to a substantial global reduction in pertussis morbidity and mortality. I...

    Authors: Rudzani Muloiwa, Benjamin M. Kagina, Mark E. Engel and Gregory D. Hussey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:233

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are not only increasingly being used for the initial stroke prevention therapy but progressively also substitute vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment in patients with non-val...

    Authors: Lena M. Paschke, Kerstin Klimke, Attila Altiner, Dominik von Stillfried and Maike Schulz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:254

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has both prognostic value in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and predictive value for immunotherapy response. However, TMB evaluation by whole-exome sequencin...

    Authors: Yanhua Tian, Jiachen Xu, Qian Chu, Jianchun Duan, Jianjun Zhang, Hua Bai, Zhenlin Yang, Wenfeng Fang, Liangliang Cai, Rui Wan, Kailun Fei, Jie He, Shugeng Gao, Li Zhang, Zhijie Wang and Jie Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:232

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Despite the biological link between thyroid hormones and breast cancer cell proliferation shown in experimental studies, little is known about the association between hyperthyroidism and breast cancer, as well...

    Authors: Haomin Yang, Natalie Holowko, Felix Grassmann, Mikael Eriksson, Per Hall and Kamila Czene

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:225

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Comorbidity is common and has a substantial negative impact on the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Whilst receipt of guideline-indicated treatment for AMI is associated with impro...

    Authors: Mohammad E. Yadegarfar, Chris P. Gale, Tatendashe B. Dondo, Chris G. Wilkinson, Martin R. Cowie and Marlous Hall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:231

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Insulin shares a limited physiological concentration range with other endocrine hormones. Not only too low, but also too high systemic insulin levels are detrimental for body functions.

    Authors: Hubert Kolb, Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling and Stephan Martin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:224

    Content type: Review

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  34. There is substantial burden of seasonal influenza in Kenya, which led the government to consider introducing a national influenza vaccination programme. Given the cost implications of a nationwide programme, l...

    Authors: Jeanette Dawa, Gideon O. Emukule, Edwine Barasa, Marc Alain Widdowson, Omu Anzala, Edwin van Leeuwen, Marc Baguelin, Sandra S. Chaves and Rosalind M. Eggo

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:223

    Content type: Research article

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  35. To contain the spread of COVID-19, a cordon sanitaire was put in place in Wuhan prior to the Lunar New Year, on 23 January 2020. We assess the efficacy of the cordon sanitaire to delay the introduction and onset ...

    Authors: Billy J. Quilty, Charlie Diamond, Yang Liu, Hamish Gibbs, Timothy W. Russell, Christopher I. Jarvis, Kiesha Prem, Carl A. B. Pearson, Samuel Clifford, Stefan Flasche, Petra Klepac, Rosalind M. Eggo and Mark Jit

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:259

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The adverse health effects of early life exposure to tobacco smoking have been widely reported. In spite of this, the underlying molecular mechanisms of in utero and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke are onl...

    Authors: Marta Vives-Usano, Carles Hernandez-Ferrer, Léa Maitre, Carlos Ruiz-Arenas, Sandra Andrusaityte, Eva Borràs, Ángel Carracedo, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Muireann Coen, Xavier Estivill, Juan R. González, Regina Grazuleviciene, Kristine B. Gutzkow, Hector C. Keun, Chung-Ho E. Lau…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:243

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Ovarian cancer causes 151,900 deaths per year worldwide. Treatment and prognosis are primarily determined by the histopathologic interpretation in combination with molecular diagnosis. However, the relationshi...

    Authors: Kun-Hsing Yu, Vincent Hu, Feiran Wang, Ursula A. Matulonis, George L. Mutter, Jeffrey A. Golden and Isaac S. Kohane

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:236

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. How the brain develops accurate models of the external world and generates appropriate behavioral responses is a vital question of widespread multidisciplinary interest. It is increasingly understood that brai...

    Authors: Meghan H. Puglia, Kathleen M. Krol, Manuela Missana, Cabell L. Williams, Travis S. Lillard, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly and Tobias Grossmann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:244

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:292

  39. After its outbreak in China, the novel COronaVIrus Disease 19 is spreading across the globe. It is an emergency the world has never seen before.

    Authors: Pietro A. Modesti, Jiguang Wang, Albertino Damasceno, Charles Agyemang, Luc Van Bortel, Alexandre Persu, Dong Zhao, Faical Jarraya, Ilaria Marzotti, Mohamed Bamoshmoosh, Gianfranco Parati and Aletta E. Schutte

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:256

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  40. Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, which is increasing worldwide, has recently been associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether consumption of UPF is ...

    Authors: Henry Montero-Salazar, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Belén Moreno-Franco, Helena Sandoval-Insausti, Fernando Civeira, Martín Laclaustra and Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:235

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Smokeless tobacco (ST) is consumed by more than 300 million people worldwide. The distribution, determinants and health risks of ST differ from that of smoking; hence, there is a need to highlight its distinct...

    Authors: Kamran Siddiqi, Scheherazade Husain, Aishwarya Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Masuma Pervin Mishu and Aziz Sheikh

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:222

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Severe iodine deficiency impacts fertility and reproductive outcomes. The potential effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are not well known. The aim of this study was to examine whether iodine intake ...

    Authors: Marianne Hope Abel, Ida Henriette Caspersen, Verena Sengpiel, Bo Jacobsson, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Per Magnus, Jan Alexander and Anne Lise Brantsæter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:211

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) significantly reduces the burden of malaria during pregnancy compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine ...

    Authors: Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Teddy Ochieng, Harriet Ochokoru, Miriam Nakalembe, Tamara D. Clark, Theodore Ruel, Sarah G. Staedke, Daniel Chandramohan, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya and Grant Dorsey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:207

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. The spatial spread of many mosquito-borne diseases occurs by focal spread at the scale of a few hundred meters and over longer distances due to human mobility. The relative contributions of different spatial s...

    Authors: Giorgio Guzzetta, Francesco Vairo, Alessia Mammone, Simone Lanini, Piero Poletti, Mattia Manica, Roberto Rosa, Beniamino Caputo, Angelo Solimini, Alessandra Della Torre, Paola Scognamiglio, Alimuddin Zumla, Giuseppe Ippolito and Stefano Merler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:226

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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