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  1. Content type: Research article

    Self-prescribing among doctors is common, but no longitudinal studies have documented this issue. We studied the self-prescribing behaviour among young Norwegian physicians and the predictors of self-prescribing.

    Authors: Erlend Hem, Guro Stokke, Reidar Tyssen, Nina T Grønvold, Per Vaglum and Øivind Ekeberg

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:16

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one ...

    Authors: Clive Elliott Adams, John Rathbone, Ben Thornley, Mike Clarke, Jo Borrill, Kristian Wahlbeck and A George Awad

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:15

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health lite...

    Authors: Anthony F Jorm, Yoshibumi Nakane, Helen Christensen, Kumiko Yoshioka, Kathleen M Griffiths and Yuji Wata

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:12

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids ...

    Authors: Guan-Yeu Diau, Andrea T Hsieh, Eszter A Sarkadi-Nagy, Vasuki Wijendran, Peter W Nathanielsz and J Thomas Brenna

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:11

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Favorable clinical outcomes have been observed with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK) in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The mechanisms of this beneficial effect have not been delineated clearly. GIK ...

    Authors: Iwan CC van der Horst, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Arnoud WJ van 't Hof, Stoffer Reiffers, Kor Miedema, Jan CA Hoorntje, Jan-Henk E Dambrink, AT Marcel Gosselink, Maarten WN Nijsten, Harry Suryapranata, Menko-Jan de Boer and Felix Zijlstra

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:9

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Some individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) suffer long-lasting symptoms without ever consulting their doctors. Our aim was to study co-morbidity and lifestyle differences among consulte...

    Authors: Ture Ålander, Kurt Svärdsudd, Sven-Erik Johansson and Lars Agréus

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:8

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  7. Content type: Research article

    There have been concerns that low blood cholesterol concentrations may cause non-vascular mortality and morbidity. Randomisation of large numbers of people to receive a large, and prolonged, reduction in chole...


    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:6

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects simil...

    Authors: Michael Odenwald, Frank Neuner, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert, Claudia Catani, Birke Lingenfelder, Harald Hinkel, Heinz Häfner and Brigitte Rockstroh

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:5

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Parental smoking and prone sleep positioning are recognized causal features of Sudden Infant Death. This study quantifies the relationship between prenatal smoking and infant death over the time period of the Bac...

    Authors: Mark E Anderson, Daniel C Johnson and Holly A Batal

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:4

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The consistent finding of higher prevalence of hypertension in US blacks compared to whites has led to speculation that African-origin populations are particularly susceptible to this condition. Large surveys ...

    Authors: Richard S Cooper, Katharina Wolf-Maier, Amy Luke, Adebowale Adeyemo, José R Banegas, Terrence Forrester, Simona Giampaoli, Michel Joffres, Mika Kastarinen, Paola Primatesta, Birgitta Stegmayr and Michael Thamm

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:2

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The recurrence of cardiac events in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) excluding patients with the Brugada syndrome is unclear since this entity remains present in previous studies.

    Authors: Jean Champagne, Peter Geelen, François Philippon and Pedro Brugada

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:1

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  12. Content type: Research article

    There has been concern that the incidence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is increasing. Previous studies have been smaller, restricted to autism (excluding other pervasive develop...

    Authors: Liam Smeeth, Claire Cook, Professor Eric Fombonne, Lisa Heavey, Laura C Rodrigues, Peter G Smith and Andrew J Hall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:39

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important cause of acute renal failure. We assess the efficacy of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients undergoing intravascular angiog...

    Authors: Sean M Bagshaw and William A Ghali

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:38

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...

    Authors: Nicola Marchi, Kerri L Hallene, Kelly M Kight, Luca Cucullo, Gabriel Moddel, William Bingaman, Gabriele Dini, Annamaria Vezzani and Damir Janigro

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:37

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. m...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma and David W Dunne

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:36

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing n...

    Authors: Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble and Lisa Zuraw

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:35

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome o...

    Authors: Maria M Medveczky, Tracy A Sherwood, Thomas W Klein, Herman Friedman and Peter G Medveczky

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:34

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  18. Content type: Research article

    We conducted this analysis to determine i) which journals publish high-quality, clinically relevant studies in internal medicine, general/family practice, general practice nursing, and mental health; and ii) t...

    Authors: Kathleen Ann McKibbon, Nancy L Wilczynski and Robert Brian Haynes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:33

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish tra...

    Authors: Karin Nygård, Birgitta de Jong, Philippe J Guerin, Yvonne Andersson, Agneta Olsson and Johan Giesecke

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:32

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to pro...

    Authors: Mark J Pletcher, Jeffrey A Tice, Michael Pignone, Charles McCulloch, Tracy Q Callister and Warren S Browner

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:31

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Pendred syndrome, a common autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and goiter, is caused by mutations of SLC26A4, which codes for pendrin. We investigated the relationship between pen...

    Authors: Philine Wangemann, Erin M Itza, Beatrice Albrecht, Tao Wu, Sairam V Jabba, Rajanikanth J Maganti, Jun Ho Lee, Lorraine A Everett, Susan M Wall, Ines E Royaux, Eric D Green and Daniel C Marcus

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:30

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning s...

    Authors: IC McManus, A Keeling and E Paice

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:29

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  23. Content type: Research article

    While the basic ethical issues regarding consent may be universal to all countries, the consent procedures required by international review boards which include detailed scientific and legal information, may n...

    Authors: J Sastry, H Pisal, S Sutar, N Kapadia-Kundu, A Joshi, N Suryavanshi, KE Bharucha, A Shrotri, MA Phadke, RC Bollinger and AV Shankar

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:28

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Within the UK there is considerable variation in the perinatal mortality rate. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with stillbirths and early neonatal deaths (ENND) and the suitabi...

    Authors: Nigel C Smeeton, Roberto J Rona, Pamela Dobson, Ruth Cochrane and Charles Wolfe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:27

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with higher mortality among infants and young children in the developing world. We describe patterns in 'exclusive breastfeeding' and 'any breastfeeding' rates and quanti...

    Authors: Jeremy A Lauer, Ana Pilar Betrán, Cesar G Victora, Mercedes de Onís and Aluísio JD Barros

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:26

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Residents of the Republic of Serbia faced civil war and a NATO-led bombing campaign in 1999. We sought to assess the burden of metal health dysfunction among emergency department (ED) patients presenting for c...

    Authors: Brett D Nelson, William G Fernandez, Sandro Galea, Sarah Sisco, Kerry Dierberg, Gordana Subaric Gorgieva, Arijit K Nandi, Jennifer Ahern, Mihajlo Mitrović, Michael VanRooyen and David Vlahov

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:22

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  27. Content type: Research article

    A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outc...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, Caroline Dufresne, Mark A Barone and Karine St-Hilaire

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:21

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American wom...

    Authors: Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, Bonnie M Duran and Juliann M Montgomery

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:20

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  29. Content type: Research article

    ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo. Since overactivit...

    Authors: Andrew B Goulter, Martin J Goddard, Jennifer C Allen and Kenneth L Clark

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:19

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  30. Content type: Research article

    To empirically evaluate bias in estimation of accuracy associated with delay in verification of diagnosis among studies evaluating tests for predicting endometrial hyperplasia.

    Authors: T Justin Clark, Gerben ter Riet, Aravinthan Coomarasamy and Khalid S Khan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:18

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the membrane transport mechanisms of 20-(S)-camptothecin (CPT) in order to understand the possible role of membrane transporters on its ora...

    Authors: Anita K Lalloo, Feng R Luo, Ailan Guo, Pankaj V Paranjpe, Sung-Hack Lee, Viral Vyas, Eric Rubin and Patrick J Sinko

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:16

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  32. Content type: Research article

    An intravenous urogram (IVU) has traditionally been considered mandatory before treating renal and ureteric stones by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). This study was designed to see whether there ...

    Authors: M Hammad Ather, Nuzhat Faruqui, Sobia Akhtar and M Nasir Sulaiman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:15

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. ...

    Authors: James L Goodwin, Kris L Kaemingk, Ralph F Fregosi, Gerald M Rosen, Wayne J Morgan, Terry Smith and Stuart F Quan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:14

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to t...

    Authors: John McGrath, Sukanta Saha, Joy Welham, Ossama El Saadi, Clare MacCauley and David Chant

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:13

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Painless, rapid, controlled, minimally invasive molecular transport across human skin for drug delivery and analyte acquisition is of widespread interest. Creation of microconduits through the stratum corneum ...

    Authors: Terry O Herndon, Salvador Gonzalez, TR Gowrishankar, R Rox Anderson and James C Weaver

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:12

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Despite treatment recommendations from various organizations, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) continues to be underused, particularly by physicians in high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review of ...

    Authors: Steven Bellemare, Lisa Hartling, Natasha Wiebe, Kelly Russell, William R Craig, Don McConnell and Terry P Klassen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:11

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  37. Content type: Research article

    We have previously described an alternative invasion-independent pathway of cancer metastasis in a murine mammary tumor model. This pathway is initiated by intravasation of tumor nests enveloped by endothelial...

    Authors: Takashi Sugino, Tomiko Yamaguchi, Go Ogura, Atsuko Saito, Takeaki Hashimoto, Nobuo Hoshi, Sayaka Yoshida, Steve Goodison and Toshimitsu Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:9

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is recognized as a site for drug-drug interactions and provides a mechanistic explanation for clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions with digoxin. The questi...

    Authors: Gunilla Englund, Pär Hallberg, Per Artursson, Karl Michaëlsson and Håkan Melhus

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:8

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis of childhood. There is considerable controversy over whether children with HSP should be treated with corticosteroids. The goal of this stu...

    Authors: Adam M Huber, Jim King, Peter McLaine, Terry Klassen and Mary Pothos

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:7

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Randomized controlled trials comparing different vasectomy occlusion techniques are lacking. Thus, this multicenter randomized trial was conducted to compare the probability of the success of ligation and exci...

    Authors: David Sokal, Belinda Irsula, Melissa Hays, Mario Chen-Mok and Mark A Barone

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:6

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